Data, Information, Evidence, and Knowledge: A Proposal for Health Informatics and Data Science
PDF

How to Cite

Dammann, O. (2019). Data, Information, Evidence, and Knowledge: A Proposal for Health Informatics and Data Science. Online Journal of Public Health Informatics, 10(3). https://doi.org/10.5210/ojphi.v10i3.9631

Abstract

In this commentary , I revisit and modify Ackoff’s data-information-knowledge-wisdom (DIKW) hierarchy. I suggest to de-emphasize the wisdom part and to insert evidence between information and knowledge (DIEK). This framework defines data as raw symbols, which become information when they are contextualized. Information achieves the status of evidence in comparison to relevant standards. Evidence is used to test hypotheses and is transformed into knowledge by success and consensus. As checkpoints for the transition from evidence to knowledge I suggest relevance, robustness, repeatability, and reproducibility.

https://doi.org/10.5210/ojphi.v10i3.9631
PDF
Authors own copyright of their articles appearing in the Online Journal of Public Health Informatics. Readers may copy articles without permission of the copyright owner(s), as long as the author and OJPHI are acknowledged in the copy and the copy is used for educational, not-for-profit purposes. Share-alike: when posting copies or adaptations of the work, release the work under the same license as the original. For any other use of articles, please contact the copyright owner. The journal/publisher is not responsible for subsequent uses of the work, including uses infringing the above license. It is the author's responsibility to bring an infringement action if so desired by the author.