CIPARS: A One-Health Approach to Antimicrobial Resistance Surveillance
The objective of the Canadian Integrated Program for Antimicrobial Resistance Surveillance (CIPARS) is to provide a unified approach to monitor national trends in antimicrobial resistance (AMR) and antimicrobial use (AMU) in humans and animals and to facilitate the assessment of the public health impact of antimicrobial use. CIPARS is a combination of passive and active surveillance that is coordinated by the Public Health Agency of Canada (PHAC) but is based on extensive collaborations. Stakeholder engagement has led to action based on surveillance results. This One-Health approach provides a holistic understanding of AMR in Canada and enables the evaluation of interventions.