AbstractThe U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) designed a program to pilot multi-component contamination warning systems (CWSs), known as the Water Security initiative. The goal of the EPA's Water Security initiative is to demonstrate the feasibility and benefits of implementing a CWS, both for detecting contamination incidents as well as improving the day-to-day operation (USEPA WaterSentinel System Architecture, 2005). The Cincinnati pilot has been fully operational since January 2008, and an additional four pilot utilities are in the process of testing and evaluating their own CWSs which have been designed and implemented in Philadelphia, New York City, Dallas, and San Francisco. To ensure long-term sustainability of the PHS component, it is important to understand lessons learned from use of tools, along with communication challenges between public health and the local water utility.
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